Introduction. A blood clot often forms in arteries damaged by the buildup of plaques (atherosclerosis). 1 An ischemic stroke happens when blood flow through the artery that supplies oxygen-rich blood to the brain becomes blocked. Women who take birth control pills and smoke cigarettes increase their risk of heart attack, stroke, blood clots, and peripheral vascular disease greatly. Cardioembolic stroke is the most disabling cause of stroke and accounts for 30% of ischemic strokes (1, 2). Ischemic stroke occurs when a blood clot blocks or narrows an artery leading to the brain. Embolic strokes; These strokes are as a result of blood clots traveling from another part of the body going to the brain through blood vessels. Hemorrhagic Stroke. Pathophysiology: Ischemic stroke occurs when an artery to the brain is blocked.A thrombotic stroke occurs when diseased or damaged cerebral arteries become blocked by the formation of a blood clot within the brain. Ischemic Stroke (Embolic) An ischemic stroke is as an episode of neurologic dysfunction caused by focal cerebral, spinal, or retinal infarction. Hart RG, Veltkamp RC, Sheridan P, et al. The term “embolic” was first suggested in 1854 by Virchow 1 when he described a patient with occlusion of the brain arteries by clots that appeared to arise from the heart. Many centers currently use the VerifyNow assay (Accriva Diagnostics, San Diego, CA) prior to FD treatment. Most strokes (87%) are ischemic strokes. Antiplatelet therapy is the key to avoid the thromboembolic complications discussed in Chapter 3. An embolic stroke is also caused by a clot within an artery, but in this case the clot (or emboli) forms somewhere other than in the brain itself. A thrombotic stroke does not go away without treatment. Fatty deposits lining the vessel walls, called atherosclerosis, are the main cause for ischemic stroke. Background: While atrial fibrillation (AF) increases the risk of cardioembolic stroke, some ischemic strokes in AF patients are noncardioembolic. Objectives: To assess ischemic stroke mechanisms in AF and to compare their responses to antithrombotic therapies. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2019;28:2273-9. In 2014, the clinical construct of “embolic stroke of undetermined source” (ESUS) was introduced to identify patients with nonlacunar cryptogenic ischemic strokes in whom embolism was the likely stroke mechanism. Blood clots often cause the blockages that lead to ischemic strokes. 1 It was hypothesized that anticoagulants might be more efficacious than antiplatelet agents for secondary stroke prevention in ESUS patients. Ischemic stroke. Transient Ischemic Attack(TIA) Ischemic Stroke. Among the common causes of an embolic stroke is an irregular heart rhythm (Atrial Fibrillation). 16 Ischemic stroke accounts for 87% of all strokes. 2 The identification of the cause of ischemic stroke is a 2-step process. Fatty deposits can cause two types of obstruction: Cerebral thrombosis is a thrombus (blood clot) that develops at the fatty plaque within the blood vessel. It can occur in the carotid artery of the neck as well as other arteries. All currently available evidence suggests that the majority of ischemic strokes are of an embolic nature. Predictors of Recurrent Ischemic Stroke in Patients With Embolic Strokes of Undetermined Source and Effects of Rivaroxaban Versus Aspirin According to Risk Status: The NAVIGATE ESUS Trial. Ischemic complications of flow diversion include transient ischemic attacks, embolic stroke, and stenosis-related ischemia. 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